|Family||Scientific Name||Author||Year||Common Name|
|Serranidae||Alphestes afer||(Bloch)||1793||Mutton Hamlet|
Unique Characters: Dorsal fin with 11 spines and 17-19 rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 9 rays. Most of upper edge of operculum free, not connected by skin to body. Caudal fin rounded or truncate in most species. Head larger, its length contained 2.3-3.3 times in standard length. Preopercle without a large antrorse spine in most species; middle opercle spine not reaching edge of operculum. Front nostrils variously shaped, but always closer to rear nostrils than to upper lip. A thin, moveable supramaxilla bone along upper, rear edge of maxilla (supramaxilla is covered by skin and not obvious, but it can be discerned by pushing the upper edge of the maxilla with a fingernail or dissecting needle; the supramaxilla is more apparent if the skin is cut and peeled off the free, rear part of the maxilla). Most teeth depressible (hinged). Scaly flap of skin joining upper part of inner (posterior) side of pectoral-fin base to body. Soft dorsal and anal fins mostly covered with thick skin and scales. Scales on body small, lateral scale series (69-146) more numerous than lateral-line scales. Large antrorse spine at corner of preopercle (covered by skin). Snout short, less than or equal to eye diameter.
Similar Species: None.