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Unique Characters: Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth. Translucent with dark spots on the side. Vertebrae dark. Anus located at throat. Anal fin very long, begins almost at throat. Pelvic fins absent. Scales absent. Cardiform teeth present but restricted to upper jaw symphysis. Swim bladder constricted forming 2 chambers. Lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins and swim bladder rocker bone. Juveniles and adults facultative or obligatory commensals with holothurians (Sea Cucumbers). Larvae extremely elongate with vexillum well anteriad of first dorsal-fin ray and first anal-fin ray. Compensatory (shrinking) tenuis stage well developed. Anal-fin rays longer than opposing dorsal-fin rays; anal-fin origin and anus positioned far forward, usually under the pectoral fin; Caudal fin and associated skeleton absent. Pectoral-fin rays 13-30. The upper jaw lacks large fangs and there are many small, heart-shaped teeth. Found inside the body cavity of sea cucumbers (holothurians).
Similar Species: None.
FAO. 1999. Species catalogue. Volume 18. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol. 18. 178p., 136 figs. Rome, Italy.