|Family||Scientific Name||Author||Year||Common Name|
|Gobiidae||Lythrypnus phorellus||Böhlke and Robins||1960||Convict Goby|
All Lythrypnus – Pelvic fins completely united to form a round sucking disc. Dorsal fins separated. Body stout. No chevron markings on sides. Upper pectoral-fin rays broadly united. Tongue sometimes slightly indented but not notched. No lobes on shoulder girdle. Lateral scales, if present, usually < 57. Body mostly covered with scales. Dorsal fin with usually < seven spines. No pores in lateral line system on head. Body robust but short (maximum size usually < 23 mm SL). Lateral scale rows 25–28. Top of head, nape, chest, and pectoral-fin base naked.
Unique Characters: Two dark spots (one above other, ventral one larger) on pectoral-fin base. Spots on cheek usually in 3–4 rows. Body with alternating bluish gray and yellowish bands. Dorsal spines not prolonged.
Bluegold Goby Lythrypnus spilus. Two dark spots (one above other, ventral one larger) on pectoral-fin base. Spots on cheek usually in 3–4 rows. Body with alternating bluish gray and yellowish bands. Dorsal spines not prolonged.
Dwarf Goby Lythrypnus elasson. Body usually uniformly dark red gray. Dark stripes from back of eye to second dorsal fin. Cheeks and opercle with four rows of orange spots radiating down from eye. First two spines in first dorsal fin elongated.
Reference: Ross, S.W., and F.C. Rohde. 2004. The gobioid fishes of North Carolina (Pisces: Gobioidei). Bulletin of Marine Science 74:287-323.